1 Dijar

How Tsunami Occurs Essay Format

1) Council on Earthquake Disaster Prevention, Ministry of Education (1933) Note on Prevention against Tsunamis. pp. 1–14(in Japanese).

2) Kajiura K. (1970) Tsunami source, energy and directivity of wave radiation. Bull. Earthquake Research Institute48, 835–869

3) Imamura F., Nagano O., Goto C. and Shuto N. (1987) Numerical simulation of transoceanic propagation of 1960 Chilean tsunami. Proc. 34th Japanese Conf. Coastal Eng. 34, 172–176(in Japanese).

4) Watanabe H. (1998) Comprehensive list of tsunamis to hit the Japanese Islands, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 1–236(in Japanese).

5) Mansinha L. and Smylie D.E. (1971) The displacement of the earthquake fault model. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 61, 1433–1400

6) Goto C and Ogawa Y. (1982) Tsunami numerical simulation with leapfrog scheme, Tohoku Univ., p. 52 (in Japanese).

7) Goto C and Ogawa Y. (1997) Part 1 Shallow water theory and its difference scheme, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Manual and Guides35, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1–43

8) Shuto N., Suzuki T., Hasegawa K. and Inagaki K. (1986) A study of numerical techniques on the tsunami propagation and run-up. Science of Tsunami Hazards4(2), 111–124

9) Imamura F. and Goto C. (1988) Truncation error in numerical tsunami simulation by the finite difference method. Coastal Eng. Japan31 (2), 245–263

10) Goto C and Shuto N. (1983) Numerical simulation of tsunami propagation and runup. Tsunami-Their Science and Eng., 439–451

11) Fujima K. and Shigemura T. (2000) Determination of grid size for leap-frog finite difference model to simulate tsunamis around a conical island. Coastal Eng. Jour. 42 (2), 197–210

12) Tatehata H. (1997) The new tsunami warning system of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazard Research9, 175–188

13) Aida I. (1978) Reliability of a tsunami source model derived from fault parameter. Jour. Phys. Earth26, 57–73

14) Shuto N. (1985) The Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake Tsunami on the North Akita Coast. Coastal Eng. Japan28, 255–264

15) Satake K., Okada M. and Abe K. (1988) Tide gauge response to tsunamis: Measurements at 40 tide gauge stations in Japan. Jour. Marine Research46, 557–571

16) Goto C. (1984) Equation of nonlinear dispersive long waves for a large Ursell number. Proc. JSCE351 (II-2), 193–201(in Japanese).

17) Iwase H., Mikami T and Goto C. (1998) Practical tsunami numerical simulation model by use of non-linear dispersive long wave theory. Jour. Hydraulic, Coastal and Environmental Eng., JSCE600 (II-44), 119–124(in Japanese).

18) Iwase H., Mikami T., Goto C. and Fujima K. (2002) A comparative study of nonlinear dispersive long wave equation for numerical simulation of tsunami. Jour. Hydraulic, Coastal and Environmental Eng., JSCE705 (II-59), 129–138(in Japanese).

19) Shigihara Y. and Fujima K. (2007) Adequate numerical scheme for dispersive wave theory for tsunami numerical simulation and development of new numerical algorithm. Jour. JSCE, Series B63 (1), 51–66(in Japanese).

20) National Land Agency, Agricultural Improvement Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Fisheries Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Transport, Japan Meteorological Agency, Ministry of Construction and Fire and Disaster Management Agency (1997) Guidance on Reinforcement of Tsunami Disaster Prevention Countermeasures in Local Disaster Prevention Planning, pp. 1–99(in Japanese).

21) Fujima K., Masamura K. and Goto C. (2002) Development of the 2D/3D hybrid model for tsunami numerical simulation. Coastal Eng. Jour. 44 (2), 373–397

22) Tomita T., Kakinuma T. and Shimada A. (2004) Numerical simulation of tsunamis around and behind breakwater using a 3D model. Annual Jour. Coastal Eng., JSCE51, 296–300(in Japanese).

23) Cabinet Office (Disaster Management), Rural Developement Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Fisheries Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, River Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and Port and Harbours Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (2004) Tsunami and Storm Surge Hazard Map Manual, pp. 1–128(in Japanese, English version is available at http://www.icharm.pwri.go.jp/training/pdf/tsunami_and_storm_surge_hazard_map_manual.pdf)

24) Katada T and Kuwasawa N. (2006) Development of tsunami comprehensive scenario simulator for risk management and disaster education, Jour. JSCE, Series D,62 (3), 250–261 (in Japanese, Their “mooving hazard map” is shown at http://dsel.ce.gunma-u.ac.jp/).

25) Shuto N. (1993) Tsunami intensity and disasters. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazard Research1, 197–216

26) Matsutomi H. (1999) A practical formula for estimating impulsive force due to driftwoods and variation features of the impulsive force. Proc. JSCE621 (II-47), 111–127(in Japanese).

27) Shuto N. (1987) The effectiveness and limit of tsunami control forests. Coastal Eng. Japan30, 143–153

28) Harada K. and Imamura F. (2003) Evaluation of tsunamis reduction by control forest and possibility of its use for mitigation. Proc. Coastal Eng., JSCE50, 341–345(in Japanese).

29) Arikawa T., Nakano F., Ohtsubo D., Shimosako K. and Ishikawa N. (2007) Research on destruction and deformation of structures due to surge front tsunami. Annual Jour. Coastal Eng., JSCE54, 841–845(in Japanese).

30) Asakura R., Iwase K., Ikeya T., Takao M., Kaneto T., Fujii Net al. (2000) An experimental study on wave force acting on on-shore structures due to overflowing tsunamis. Proc. Coastal Eng., JSCE47, 911–915(in Japanese).

31) Ikeno M., Matsuyama M., Sakakiyama T. and Yanagisawa K. (2006) Experimental study on force of tsunami with soliton fission running up on land. Proc. Coastal Eng., JSCE53, 776–780(in Japanese).

32) Nishihata T., Moriya Y., Tamura T., Takimoto K and Miura H. (2005) Experimental study on the condition of evaluation under flood situation caused by tsunami. Annual Jour. Coastal Eng., JSCE52, 1256–1260(in Japanese).

33) Minoura K., Nakaya S. and Sato H. (1987) Traces of tsunamis recorded in lake deposits, An example from Jusan, Shiura-mura, Aomori. Zisin Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan40, 183–196(in Japanese).

34) Sawai Y., Kamataki T., Shishikura M., Nasu H., Okamura Y., Satake Ket al. (2009) A periodic recurrence of geologically recorded tsunamis during the past 5500 years in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Jour. Geophysical Research114, B01319, 10.1029/2007JB005503 [Cross Ref]

35) Hatori T. (1975) Source of tsunamis generated off Boso Peninsula. Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst.50, 83–91(in Japanese).

36) Tanaka K., Sato T., Kosuge M and Sato Y. (1984) Characteristics of the Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake, InGeneral Report on the Disaster Caused by the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake (ed. Noritomi K.). Rep. No. 58022002, supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, pp. 39–45(in Japanese).

37) Aida I. (1984) A source model of the tsunami accompanying the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake. Bull. Earthquake Research Institute59, 235–265(in Japanese).

38) Satake K. (1989) Inversion of tsunami waveforms for the estimation of heterogeneous fault motion of large submarine Earthquakes; the 1968 Tokachi-oki and the 1983 Japan Sea Earthquakes. Jour. Geophysical Research94, 5627–5636

39) Koike N., Koshimura S., Takahashi T., Kawata Y., Imamura F., Harada Ket al. (2005) Tsunami height survey of the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula Earthquake. Annual Jour. Coastal Eng., JSCE52, 1336–1340(in Japanese).

Tsunamis Essay

3702 Words15 Pages

Tsunamis

Table of Contents 1
Introduction: 2
Impact to human life: 3
Impact to Non-human life: 4
Impact to the Environment: 7
Impact to the Economy: 8
American Red Cross Assistance: 9
Conclusion: 13
Bibliography: 14

Introduction:
A massive Tsunami (Japanese for “Harbor wave”) had hit southern Asia the day after Christmas 2004. The cause of the Tsunami was an offshore earthquake that results in the tectonic plates being displaced and the creation of a vertical shift in the ocean floor. This vertical shift lead to a large volume of water being uplifted and turned to create a huge wave that traveled up to 300 miles per hour, gradually slowing as it reached the shore. At that time, people in…show more content…

These countries had neither the proper disaster warning systems nor any type of acceptable emergency shelters. Additionally, they did not have an ample number of hospitals, medicines, supplies of food and enough shelters to care for the survivors of the tsunami. Therefore the wounded died suffering infections, hunger and depression and left thousands possibly missing. The tsunami washed parts of countries away leaving the inhabitants in total devastation. Though, the worst is yet to come. It has been found that people are now drinking from tainted water supplies, since the fact that many resources or cargoes were unable to reach the people in a timely manner. The need for clean water is pressing. Health officials say that cases of diarrhea illness were reported across the areas of South Asia. The World Health Organization predicated that about five million survivors of the calamity are at the risk of getting infections from the disease (Dr Samlee Plianbangchang, 2005). Volunteers attempting to treat the survivors are still struggling to provide the necessary help across all the nations affected. In addition to the diarrhea illnesses, there are major concerns about other illnesses such as cholera and typhoid. People can become infected very easily with the consumption of tainted food and water. Once infected, the individual can suffer form diarrhea, dehydration, and eventually death. Other illnesses

Show More

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *