1 JoJobei

Essays And Debates On Juvenile Deliquency

"Teenage crime" redirects here. For the song, see Teenage Crime (song).

Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutoryage of majority).[1] Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. A juvenile delinquent in the United States is a person who is typically below 18 (17 in New York, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, and Texas) years of age and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for people under 18 to be charged and treated as adults.

In recent years[vague] a higher proportion of youth have experienced arrests by their early 20s than in the past, although some scholars have concluded this may reflect more aggressive criminal justice and zero-tolerance policies rather than changes in youth behavior.[2] Juvenile crimes can range from status offenses (such as underage smoking), to property crimes and violent crimes. Youth violence rates in the United States have dropped to approximately 12% of peak rates in 1993 according to official US government statistics, suggesting that most juvenile offending is non-violent.[3]

However, juvenile offending can be considered to be normative adolescent behavior.[4] This is because most teens tend to offend by committing non-violent crimes, only once or a few times, and only during adolescence. Repeated and/or violent offending is likely to lead to later and more violent offenses. When this happens, the offender often displayed antisocial behavior even before reaching adolescence.[5]

Types[edit]

Juvenile delinquency, or offending, can be separated into three categories:

According to the developmental research of Moffitt (2006),[4] there are two different types of offenders that emerge in adolescence. One is the repeat offender, referred to as the life-course-persistent offender, who begins offending or showing antisocial/aggressive behavior in adolescence (or even in childhood) and continues into adulthood; and the age specific offender, referred to as the adolescence-limited offender, for whom juvenile offending or delinquency begins and ends during their period of adolescence.[5] Because most teenagers tend to show some form of antisocial or delinquent behavior during adolescence, it is important to account for these behaviors in childhood in order to determine whether they will be life-course-persistent offenders or adolescence-limited offenders.[5] Although adolescence-limited offenders tend to drop all criminal activity once they enter adulthood and show less pathology than life-course-persistent offenders, they still show more mental health, substance abuse, and financial problems, both in adolescence and adulthood, than those who were never delinquent.[7]

Gender roles and differences by sex[edit]

Juvenile delinquency occurrences by males are largely disproportionate to the rate of occurrences by females. This great gap between the crimes reinforce the connotations of traditional masculinity to be the center of violence, aggression, and competition. This is largely based on the notion that as males, it is their duty to take what they feel they deserve through these means to define themselves and play the role of provider and independent figure. These societal conditions are infringed by male peers, asserting the notion that the Panoptic that Jeremy Bentham described as an ideal self-regulation prison both literally and figuratively mimics the actions of male delinquents.

However, these delinquencies are not as prevalent in females in that they are expected to be more docile individuals and rely solely more on dependent characters, alleviating them from the need of committing delinquencies. Because aggression is not a desired characteristic, it has caused more commotion when females perform crimes that are often attributed to males. The acts of delinquency begin with the juvenile's expectations of their perceived roles through the direction of adults of both genders. Sandra Lee Bartky expresses these claims thoroughly in her work Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power by examining close observation of diction, action, and decorum. Boys learn to take as much space as possible when sitting, dress appropriately to stand out, and speak more demanding to assert his position and gain respect from fellow male peers. This expectation of leadership rarely enforced through peers largely dictates that delinquencies arise when male feel that they cannot assert or claim such respect through legal and practical means, thus enforcing violence is merely extenuating a desired trait to gain such position. Thus, delinquent behavior is expressed as an outlet especially to those of lower socioeconomic backgrounds that cannot gain precedence through conventional means.

Women face many obstacles living in today's society and some of these problems are even more difficult when young adolescent girls are faced with them. Physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation are often found in the backgrounds of female juvenile offenders. Yet, very few resources are available to girls who are faced with these problems. This is why females have higher rates of committing status offences such as truancy, breaking curfew, running away. Female offenders are more likely to commit status offences than violent; and female offenders are less likely than male offenders to be arrested and formally charged for most offences. However, if the female ends up actually being charged, she is more likely than a male offender to be sentenced to secure confinement. Research has always primarily focused on the delinquent male population. Which is why it is extremely important research is being conducted in regards to female development, the nature of female risk and protective factors, and the effectiveness of intervention and prevention programs. Research also indicates an offender's outcome depends heavily upon, attitudes and experiences of professionals who work with girls. Among the research that does exist, it is noted that many individuals who work in the juvenile justice system maintain that girls are more difficult to work with than boys. With that said, it is extremely important that those working in these facilities are gender-specifically trained.

Gender role for females is to become more unnoticeable, a follower that does not need to stand out. Because of their condition to be more docile and dependent, the instinctive need to gain precedence is not as highly valued. Even respect comes in the form of different terms, as it is through how appropriately she conducts herself that seems innocent. This is also influenced by fellow peers such as mothers and other female figures apart from the authoritative male figure. In this instance, there is no need to urge to commit delinquency as the female is expected to rely on the male for his expected role as provider. It is through the act of needing to become dependent that enforces the feminine characteristics to seem as an alternative to delinquency. In fact, it has been largely stated that while masculinity induces such violent behavior, femininity is seen as the antithesis to delinquency.[8] Furthermore, it is assumed that because femininity and masculinity are portrayed to be opposites, they contain a bipolarity in society that forms an explanation to the staggering disproportionate ratio between convicted delinquents. A sociological study conducted and recorded in the article Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles, both a masculine and feminine test was created to be answered by kindergartners until high school, indicating what role expectations were among the sexes. The answers were predominantly that males were to provide through aggressive terms, while females should be the more docile, bolstering the bipolarity assumption. This is because gender-role socialization produces an absolutist stance toward rules and a receptiveness toward generalized moral standards among girls while boys tend to develop a more individualistic and relativistic view of rules.[8] The bipolarity assumption suggests that masculinity and femininity are opposites, and the assumption of unidimensionality implies that gender differences form a single scale.[9]

Interestingly, the impact of feminism has because the formation of a new trend as female delinquency has gone up. Because women are now able to take more the individualistic social stance and become the means of their own provisions, the lack of providing those means has caused a gender convergence of crime. Recent data and observations from the article indicate that gender role change necessarily means females' changing their gender role identification to become more like males', that is, toward masculine identification.[10] Thus, crime now committed by females resemble masculine behavior. This illustrates an alarming trend in which females decide to adopt traditional masculine practices to instigate the need to commit delinquent acts. This results in more violent behavior among females, juveniles and adult women alike, however, the feminist critique indicates that this is primarily women adopting to masculine methods in order to achieve equal respects, thus adopting such practice is not an indication of equality but as a means of resort still relegated under patriarchal constructs.

However, the indication of gender convergence is still seen permeating between the psychological and social causes of the delinquent behaviors among females. These findings even went to cases between androgynous individuals as they were perceived in test findings to become more inclined to delinquent behaviors than females counterparts, mimicking levels with of males. However, this also comes into how the androgynous individual expresses its sexual identity regardless of physiology. Sex differences in crime is prevalent in these terms because of studies indicating that differentiation acknowledgments between the sexes from the traditional masculine and feminine characters to the more androgynous ones also play an important psychological component. This important factor was done through a series of testing, indicating that differentiation is key to the convergence theory of crime that has bolstered the rise in female crime rates. Differentiation, in this case, showed that delinquency caused by androgynous individuals were self-reported and acknowledged more than the traditional counterparts.[10] Furthermore, females who considered themselves undifferentiated were more likely to become aggressors, but the reverse is true for undifferentiated males. This result from testing indicated that undifferentiated males inclined to more law-abiding practices, indicating that traditional masculine behavior supports high self-esteem for undifferentiated males. Because this contrasts to the data for undifferentiated females, this indicates that low self- esteem is primarily prevalent in females.

These qualities, however, are suggestive themes that point towards attitudes toward the police.[10] Data confirms that sex differences in crime relate to attitudes of legal authority as well as developmental stages with parents, prompting the undifferentiated behavior that associates with a risk of promoting delinquent behavior. The studies of gender behavior that makes juveniles amendable at their early developmental stage is a thorough analysis of why juveniles create delinquent behavior. Through feminist analysis, it is important that juvenile behavior be studied through the critique of the traditional masculine and feminine constructs to see how these attitudes shape the nature of the crimes committed between both sexes. From the gender roles expectations to convergence theory and differentiation, these psychological factors shape the risk of delinquency that juveniles may intend to act upon. More importantly, these suggestive studies are still being researched to promote safer behavior for juveniles.

Racial differences[edit]

There is also a significant skew in the racial statistics for juvenile offenders. When considering these statistics, which state that Black and Latino and White teens are more likely to commit juvenile offenses. It is important to keep the following in mind: poverty, or low socio-economic status are large predictors of low parental monitoring, harsh parenting, and association with deviant peer groups, all of which are in turn associated with juvenile offending. The majority of adolescents who live in poverty are racial minorities.[11] Also, minorities who offend, even as adolescents, are more likely to be arrested and punished more harshly by the law if caught.[12] Particularly concerning a non-violent crime and when compared to white adolescents. While poor minorities are more likely to commit violent crimes, one third of affluent teens report committing violent crimes.[4]

Ethnic minority status has been included as a risk factor of psychosocial maladaptation in several studies (e.g., Gutman et al. 2003; Sameroff et al. 1993; Dallaire et al. 2008), and represents a relative social disadvantage placed on these individuals. Though the relation between delinquency and race is complex and may be explained by other contextual risk variables (see, for example, Holmes et al. 2009), the total arrest rate for black juveniles aged 10–17 is more than twice that as of white juveniles (National Center for Juvenile Justice 2008, p. 1474).[13] This does not seem to be the case for the minority group of East Asian background.[citation needed]

According to the OJJDP Statistical Briefing Online Book, in each racial group, the juvenile arrest rate for all offenses combined generally increased from the early 1980s through the mid-1990s and then declined in recent years. Between 1980 and 2012, the total juvenile arrest rate decreased 59% for Asians, 55% for American Indians, 44% for whites, and 21% for black juveniles. In 2012, there were 3,362 arrests of white juveniles for every 100,000 white persons ages 10–17 in the population. In comparison, the Asian juvenile rate was about one-third (30%) the white rate, the American Indian rate was about 10% below the white rate and the black rate was more than double the white rate. The overall arrest rate for black juveniles peaked in 1995. For the other three racial groups, the arrest rates peaked in 1996. Between their peak years and 2011, the juvenile arrest rates declined for each racial group: the decline was 45% for black juveniles, 68% for Asians, 61% for American Indians, and 50% for whites.

Risk factors[edit]

The two largest predictors of juvenile delinquency are

  • parenting style, with the two styles most likely to predict delinquency being
  • "permissive" parenting, characterized by a lack of consequence-based discipline and encompassing two subtypes known as
  • "neglectful" parenting, characterized by a lack of monitoring and thus of knowledge of the child's activities, and
  • "indulgent" parenting, characterized by affirmative enablement of misbehavior
  • "authoritarian" parenting, characterized by harsh discipline and refusal to justify discipline on any basis other than "because I said so";
  • peer group association, particularly with antisocial peer groups, as is more likely when adolescents are left unsupervised.[4]

Other factors that may lead a teenager into juvenile delinquency include poor or low socioeconomic status, poor school readiness/performance and/or failure, peer rejection, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotonin, giving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness. Delinquent activity, particularly the involvement in youth gangs, may also be caused by a desire for protection against violence or financial hardship, as the offenders view delinquent activity as a means of surrounding themselves with resources to protect against these threats. Most of these influences tend to be caused by a mix of both genetic and environmental factors.[4]

Individual risk factors[edit]

Individual psychological or behavioural risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence, impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification, aggression, lack of empathy, and restlessness.[11] Other risk factors that may be evident during childhood and adolescence include, aggressive or troublesome behavior, language delays or impairments, lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger), and cruelty to animals.[14]

Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.[15][16][17] Children who perform poorly at school are also more likely to be truant, and the status offense of truancy is linked to further offending.[11] Impulsiveness is seen by some as the key aspect of a child's personality that predicts offending.[11] However, it is not clear whether these aspects of personality are a result of "deficits in the executive functions of the brain"[11] or a result of parental influences or other social factors.[18] In any event, studies of adolescent development show that teenagers are more prone to risk-taking, which may explain the high disproportionate rate of offending among adolescents.[4]

Family environment and peer influence[edit]

Family factors that may have an influence on offending include: the level of parental supervision, the way parents discipline a child, particularly harsh punishment, parental conflict or separation, criminal parents or siblings, parental abuse or neglect, and the quality of the parent-child relationship.[18] Children who develop behavioral problems early in life are at greater risk for continual life long antisocial behavior, criminal activity and violence.[19] Some have suggested that having a lifelong partner leads to less offending.[citation needed]

Juvenile Delinquency, which basically is the rebellious or unlawful activities by kids in their teens or pre-teens, is caused by four main risk factors namely; personality, background, state of mind and drugs. These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy.[20]

Children brought up by lone parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with two natural parents. It is also more likely that children of single parents may live in poverty, which is strongly associated with juvenile delinquency.[4] However once the attachment a child feels towards their parent(s) and the level of parental supervision are taken into account, children in single parent families are no more likely to offend than others.[18] Conflict between a child's parents is also much more closely linked to offending than being raised by a lone parent.[15]

If a child has low parental supervision they are much more likely to offend.[18] Many studies have found a strong correlation between a lack of supervision and offending, and it appears to be the most important family influence on offending.[11][18] When parents commonly do not know where their children are, what their activities are, or who their friends are, children are more likely to truant from school and have delinquent friends, each of which are linked to offending.[18] A lack of supervision is also connected to poor relationships between children and parents. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them.[18]

Adolescents with criminal siblings are only more likely to be influenced by their siblings, and also become delinquen;if the sibling is older, of the same sex/gender, and warm.[14] Cases where a younger criminal sibling influences an older one are rare. An aggressive, non-loving/warm sibling is less likely to influence a younger sibling in the direction of delinquency, if anything, the more strained the relationship between the siblings, the less they will want to be like, and/or influence each other.[14]

Peer rejection in childhood is also a large predictor of juvenile delinquency. Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior. This rejections affects the child's ability to be socialized properly, which can reduce their aggressive tendencies, and often leads them to gravitate towards anti-social peer groups.[14] This association often leads to the promotion of violent, aggressive and deviant behavior. "The impact of deviant peer group influences on the crystallization of an antisocial developmental trajectory has been solidly documented."[14] Aggressive adolescents who have been rejected by peers are also more likely to have a "hostile attribution bias", which leads people to interpret the actions of others (whether they be hostile or not) as purposefully hostile and aggressive towards them. This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction.[21] Hostile attribution bias however, can appear at any age during development and often lasts throughout a persons life.

Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior.[22] They also have lower mother-child relationship quality.[23]

Applicable crime theories[edit]

There are a multitude of different theories on the causes of crime; most, if not all, of are applicable to the causes of juvenile delinquency.

Rational choice[edit]

Classical criminology stresses that causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment. For classicists, offenders are motivated by rationalself-interest, and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized.[24]Rational choice theory is the clearest example of this idea. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice.

Social disorganization[edit]

Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions (e.g. family, school, church and social groups.) and communal relationships that traditionally encouraged cooperative relationships among people.

Strain[edit]

Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton. He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means.[24] As those with, for instance, poor educational attainment have difficulty achieving wealth and status by securing well paid employment, they are more likely to use criminal means to obtain these goals.[25] Merton's suggests five adaptations to this dilemma:

  1. Innovation: individuals who accept socially approved goals, but not necessarily the socially approved means.
  2. Retreatism: those who reject socially approved goals and the means for acquiring them.
  3. Ritualism: those who buy into a system of socially approved means, but lose sight of the goals. Merton believed that drug users are in this category.
  4. Conformity: those who conform to the system's means and goals.
  5. Rebellion: people who negate socially approved goals and means by creating a new system of acceptable goals and means.

A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place. More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation. Strain theory fails to explain violent crime, the type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public.

Differential association[edit]

The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime. It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially.

Labeling[edit]

Labeling theory is a concept within Criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context rather than looking at the individual themselves. It is part of Interactionism criminology that states that once young people have been labeled as criminal they are more likely to offend.[24] The idea is that once labelled as deviant a young person may accept that role, and be more likely to associate with others who have been similarly labelled.[24] Labelling theorists say that male children from poor families are more likely to be labelled deviant, and that this may partially explain why there are more working class young male offenders.[15]

Social control[edit]

Social control theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and can reduce the inclination to indulge in behavior recognized as antisocial. The four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency are:

Direct: by which punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior, and compliance is rewarded by parents, family, and authority figures. Internal: by which a youth refrains from delinquency through the conscience or superego. Indirect: by identification with those who influence behavior, say because his or her delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others with whom he or she has close relationships. Control through needs satisfaction, i.e. if all an individual's needs are met, there is no point in criminal activity.

Mental/conduct disorders[edit]

Juvenile delinquents are often diagnosed with different disorders. Around six to sixteen percent of male teens and two to nine percent of female teens have a conduct disorder. These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorder, which is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorder, often diagnosed among psychopaths.[26] A conduct disorder can develop during childhood and then manifest itself during adolescence.[27]

Juvenile delinquents who have recurring encounters with the criminal justice system, or in other words those who are life-course-persistent offenders, are sometimes diagnosed with conduct disorders because they show a continuous disregard for their own and others safety and/or property. Once the juvenile continues to exhibit the same behavioral patterns and turns eighteen he is then at risk of being diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and much more prone to become a serious criminal offender.[28] One of the main components used in diagnosing an adult with antisocial personality disorder consists of presenting documented history of conduct disorder before the age of 15. These two personality disorders are analogous in their erratic and aggressive behavior. This is why habitual juvenile offenders diagnosed with conduct disorder are likely to exhibit signs of antisocial personality disorder early in life and then as they mature. Some times these juveniles reach maturation and they develop into career criminals, or life-course-persistent offenders. "Career criminals begin committing antisocial behavior before entering grade school and are versatile in that they engage in an array of destructive behaviors, offend at exceedingly high rates, and are less likely to quit committing crime as they age."[28]

Quantitative research was completed on 9,945 juvenile male offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 in the 1970s.[where?] The longitudinal birth cohort was used to examine a trend among a small percentage of career criminals who accounted for the largest percentage of crime activity.[29] The trend exhibited a new phenomenon among habitual offenders. The phenomenon indicated that only 6% of the youth qualified under their definition of a habitual offender (known today as life-course persistent offenders, or career criminals) and yet were responsible for 52% of the delinquency within the entire study.[29] The same 6% of chronic offenders accounted for 71% of the murders and 69% of the aggravated assaults.[29] This phenomenon was later researched among an adult population in 1977 and resulted in similar findings. S. A. Mednick did a birth cohort of 30,000 males and found that 1% of the males were responsible for more than half of the criminal activity.[30] The habitual crime behavior found among juveniles is similar to that of adults. As stated before most life-course persistent offenders begin exhibiting antisocial, violent, and/or delinquent behavior, prior to adolescence. Therefore, while there is a high rate of juvenile delinquency, it is the small percentage of life-course persistent, career criminals that are responsible for most of the violent crimes.

Prevention[edit]

Delinquency prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity.

Because the development of delinquency in youth is influenced by numerous factors, prevention efforts need to be comprehensive in scope. Prevention services may include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering. Increasing availability and use of family planning services, including education and contraceptives helps to reduce unintended pregnancy and unwanted births, which are risk factors for delinquency. Education is the great equalizer, opening doors to lift themselves out of poverty.... Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion.[31] Prevention through education aides the young people to interact more effectively in social contexts, therefore diminishing need for delinquency.

It has been noted that often interventions may leave at-risk children worse off then if there had never been an intervention.[32] This is due primarily to the fact that placing large groups of at risk children together only propagates delinquent or violent behavior. "Bad" teens get together to talk about the "bad" things they've done, and it is received by their peers in a positive reinforcing light, promoting the behavior among them.[32] A well-known intervention treatment that has not increased the prevention of juvenile delinquency is the Scared Straight Treatment. “The harmful effects of Scared Straight and boot-camp programs may be attributable to juvenile offenders’ vicarious exposure to criminal role models, to the increased resentment engendered in them by confrontational interactions, or both” [33] This suggests that exposure to criminals could create a sense of idealization and defeat the entire purpose of scared straight treatment. Also, this treatment doesn’t acknowledge the psychological troubles that the teenager may be experiencing. As mentioned before, peer groups, particularly an association with antisocial peer groups, is one of the biggest predictors of delinquency, and of life-course-persistent delinquency. The most efficient interventions are those that not only separate at-risk teens from anti-social peers, and place them instead with pro-social ones, but also simultaneously improve their home environment by training parents with appropriate parenting styles,[32] parenting style being the other large predictor of juvenile delinquency.

Critique of risk factor research[edit]

Two UK academics, Stephen Case and Kevin Haines, among others, criticized risk factor research in their academic papers and a comprehensive polemic text, Understanding Youth Offending: Risk Factor Research, Policy and Practice.

The robustness and validity of much risk factor research is criticized for:

  • Determinism, e.g. characterising young people as passive victims of risk experiences with no ability to construct, negotiate or resist risk;
  • Imputation, e.g. assuming that risk factors and definitions of offending are homogenous across countries and cultures, assuming that statistical correlations between risk factors and offending actually represent causal relationships, assuming that risk factors apply to individuals on the basis of aggregated data.
  • Reductionism, e.g. over-simplfying complex experiences and circumstances by converting them to simple quantities, relying on a psychosocial focus while neglecting potential socio-structural and political influences;

Juvenile sex crimes[edit]

Juveniles who commit sexual crimes refer to individuals adjudicated in a criminal court for a sexual crime.[34] Sex crimes are defined as sexually abusive behavior committed by a person under the age of 18 that is perpetrated "against the victim's will, without consent, and in an aggressive, exploitative, manipulative, and/or threatening manner".[35] It is important to utilize appropriate terminology for juvenile sex offenders. Harsh and inappropriate expressions include terms such as "pedophile, child molester, predator, perpetrator, and mini-perp"[36] These terms have often been associated with this group, regardless of the youth’s age, diagnosis, cognitive abilities, or developmental stage.[36] Using appropriate expressions can facilitate a more accurate depiction of juvenile sex offenders and may decrease the subsequent aversive psychological affects from using such labels.[36] In the Arab Gulf states [sic], homosexual acts are classified as an offense, and constitute one of the primary crimes for which juvenile males are charged.[37]

Prevalence data[edit]

Examining prevalence data and the characteristics of juvenilesex offenders is a fundamental component to obtain a precise understanding of this heterogeneous group. With mandatory reporting laws in place, it became a necessity for providers to report any incidents of disclosed sexual abuse. Longo and Prescott indicate that juveniles commit approximately 30-60% of all child sexual abuse.[36] The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports indicate that in 2008 youth under the age of 18 accounted for 16.7% of forcible rapes and 20.61% of other sexual offenses.[38] Center for Sex Offender Management indicates that approximately one-fifth of all rapes and one-half of all sexual child molestation can be accounted for by juveniles.[39]

Official record data[edit]

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention indicates that 15% of juvenile arrests occurred for rape in 2006, and 12% were clearance (resolved by an arrest).[40] The total number of juvenile arrests in 2006 for forcible rape was 3,610 with 2% being female and 36% being under the age of 15 years.[40] This trend has declined throughout the years with forcible rape from 1997–2006 being −30% and from 2005 to 2006 being −10%.[40] The OJJDP reports that the juvenile arrest rate for forcible rape increased from the early 1980s through the 1990s and at that time it fell again.[40] All types of crime rates fell in the 1990s.[citation needed] The OJJDP also reported that the total number of juvenile arrests in 2006 for sex offenses (other than forcible rape) was 15,900 with 10% being female and 47% being under the age of 15.[40] There was again a decrease with the trend throughout the years with sex offenses from 1997 to 2006 being −16% and from 2005 to 2006 being −9%.[40]

Males who commit sexual crimes[edit]

Barbaree and Marshall indicate that juvenile males contribute to the majority of sex crimes, with 2–4% of adolescent males having reported committing sexually assaultive behavior, and 20% of all rapes and 30–50% of all child molestation are perpetrated by adolescent males.[34] It is clear that males are over-represented in this population. This is consistent with Ryan and Lane’s research indicating that males account for 91-93% of the reported juvenile sex offenses.[35] Righthand and Welch reported that females account for an estimated 2–11% of incidents of sexual offending.[41] In addition, it reported by The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention that in the juvenile arrests during 2006, African American male youth were disproportionately arrested (34%) for forcible rape. In one case in a foster home a 13-year-old boy raped a 9-year-old boy by having forced anal sex with him, in a court hearing the 9-year-old boy said he has done this multiple times, that the 13-year-old boy was charged for sexual assault.[40]

Juvenile sex crimes internationally[edit]

Sexual crimes committed by juveniles are not just an issue in the United States. Studies from the Netherlands show that out of 3200 sex offenders recorded by police in 2009, 672 of those were juveniles, approximately 21 percent of sexual offenders. The study also points out the male to female ratio of sexual predators.[42]

In 2009, a U.S. congressman proposed legislature that would create an International Sex Offender Registry. The bill was introduced due to the fact that because laws differ in different countries someone who is on the sex offender registry in the U.S. who may be barred from living certain places and doing certain activities has free range in other less developed countries. This can lead to child sex tourism, when a sexual predator will go to less developed countries and prey on young boys and girls. Karne Newburn in his article, The Prospect of an International Sex Offender Registry, pointed out some serious flaws in the proposed bill, such as creating safety issues within the communities for the sex offenders placed on the registry. Newburn suggested instead of creating an International Sex Offender Registry from the U.S. model the U.S. join other countries in a dialogue on creating an effective model. As of now no registry exists. Despite this there is still interest in creating some sort of international registry.[43]

See also[edit]

1936 poster promoting planned housing as a method to deter juvenile delinquency, showing silhouettes of a child stealing a piece of fruit and the older child involved in armed robbery.

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

1672 words - 7 pages Juvenile Delinquency Everyday we read in the newspaper or watch T.V and hear news of crimes committed by Juveniles. With all of the crime being reported by the media about juveniles, one can’t help but wonder if all of our nation’s youth are juvenile delinquents. Although there are many cases where the juvenile did not commit a serious crime, there are others where the crime is so bad the juvenile court system tries the juvenile as an adult. Instead of seeking help for the individual, our justice system places them in adult facilities to “teach them a lesson.” The justice system fails to see what the cause of this outbreak is in a child whether it was abuse, neglect, or where they grew up.... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

997 words - 4 pages Remember doing something mischievous or wrong when you were a kid and getting the label "delinquent" slapped on you? Did you ever wonder what it meant? The legal term "juvenile delinquency" was established so that young lawbreakers could avoid the disgrace of being classified in legal records as criminals. Juvenile delinquency laws were designed to provide treatment, rather than punishment, for juvenile offenders. Young delinquents are usually sent to juvenile courts, where the main aim is to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish them. But, the term "juvenile delinquency" itself has come to imply... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

1240 words - 5 pages Juvenile delinquents, or youth that have been convicted of a crime, seem to be the norm these days. Citizens, families, and policy makers want new programs and policies within the juvenile justice system. Researchers have found that the family structure can be a precursor to delinquent behavior, and families do not have the control or balance that they once did. As such, new measures need to be implemented to help these families in crisis. Rehabilitation of the family unit is the answer, say many, not punishment. In response to this, new ideas have formed to rehabilitate the family unit, but first, the family structures that are precursors to delinquent behavior must be... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

1172 words - 5 pages A traumatic childhood may predispose a child to violence against themselves or against others, in adolescence or adulthood. This information is and has been off the records, but so far no known relationship between the magnitude of traumatic experiences and different forms of violence at puberty. A study published in Pediatrics, which involved 136,549 U.S. students between 12 and 17 has been commissioned to evaluate this relationship. The researchers sought to determine six adverse experiences for which they had passed the boys in childhood and physical and sexual abuse, witnessing abuse or problems at home by alcohol or drugs taken by a relative. Then he saw the violent behavior at puberty:... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay - 3502 words

3502 words - 14 pages On any given day you cannot open up a newspaper or turn on a televisionand not find an article or a broadcast about juveniles committing crimes, but thequestion is who is to be blamed for the juvenile delinquency of our Jamaican society?Juvenile delinquency is a violation of the law by a juvenile not punishable by deathor life imprisonment. The government follows a policy that no crime goesunpunished. The controversy that surrounds courtrooms today is whether or not ajuvenile should stand trial as an adult and be punished like an adult for committingserious offenses. One side believes that juveniles should be punished... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay - 1000 words

1000 words - 4 pages The two websites I found that promote community involvement in the prevention of juvenile delinquency are http://www.uncjin.org/Standards/Rules/r12/r12.html and http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/teens/docs/community.pdf. The first website discusses the fundamental principles, scope of the guidelines, general principles and socialization processes of juvenile delinquency prevention. Their beliefs are that juveniles can develop non-criminal attitudes "by engaging in lawful, socially useful activities and adopting a humanistic orientation" (Guidelines for the Prevention of VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

2147 words - 9 pages      Juvenile delinquents, or youth that have been convicted of a crime, seem to be the norm these days. Citizens, families, and poliy makers want new programs and policies within the juvenile justice system. Researchers have found that the family structure can be a precursor to delinquent behavior, and families do not have the control or blance that they once did. As such, mew measures need to be implemented to help these families in crisis. Rehabilitation of the family unit is the answer, say many, not punishment. In response to this, new ideas have formed to rehabilitate the family unit, but first, the family structures that are precursors to delinquent behavior... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Courts and Juvenile Delinquency Essay

1392 words - 6 pages How would you feel if the police arrested kids all over our country to jail for just crossing the street the wrong way or pushing another kid on the playground? That is what is happening to many underage juvenile all over the United States; they are being sent to adult prisons for crimes that do not deserve such severe punishments. Why they were tried as adults is an enigma and we will explain why this is a terrible injustice. In 1899 children in between the ages of 7-14 were believed they were incapable of committing criminal intent. The court system back then believed that if enough evidence could be gathered to convince a jury, the underage person would be convicted and sent to an... VIEW DOCUMENT

Reducing Juvenile Delinquency Essay

617 words - 2 pages Reducing Juvenile Delinquency � PAGE �1� Running Head: REDUCING JUVENILE DELINQUENCYReducing Juvenile Delinquency�Reducing Juvenile DelinquencyIntroductionThe legal term "juvenile delinquency" was established so that young lawbreakers could avoid the disgrace of being classified in legal records as criminals. Juvenile delinquency laws were designed to provide treatment, rather than punishment, for juvenile offenders. Young delinquents are usually sent to juvenile courts, where the main aim is to rehabilitate... VIEW DOCUMENT

Reducing Juvenile Delinquency Essay

3076 words - 12 pages The current statistics of juvenile delinquency are astounding. I will look at the most recent statistics and a few of the programs implemented to reduce or prevent delinquency. Before delving too deep into juvenile delinquency, it is important to consider the definitions of "juvenile" and "delinquent". The Merriam-Webster Dictionary gives two definitions of "juvenile": 1. Showing incomplete development, and 2. A young person; one below the legally established age of adulthood (1997). Merriam-Webster defines "delinquent" as: offending by neglect or violation of duty or law (1997). As a complete definition of juvenile delinquent it is safe to repeat "a person below the established... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency: Genetic or Environmental

2580 words - 10 pages Juvenile Delinquency: Genetic or Environmental “Oh, well, I’ll end up in jail anyway! It’s in my genes!” This was the heartfelt declaration of a 15 year-old teen. Was it inevitable that he follow in his father’s footsteps on the path of delinquent behavior and subsequent brushes with the law? Was juvenile delinquency actually a by-product of genetics or could it be a product of “behavioral sink”- that environmental abyss that absorbs so many teens? Definition of delinquency Although arguable on both sides, environment clearly has the lead in determining juvenile behavior. The very definition of juvenile delinquency states: “Delinquency is a major social problem. ... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency in the States

2135 words - 9 pages Juvenile Delinquency in the States Presently, juvenile justice is widely acknowledged as being in a state of flux in the United States. The early 1990s saw the most substantial rise in violent crime committed by juveniles ever experienced in this country. On the heels of decades of skepticism about the effectiveness of parens patriae (the state as parent), this rise was the "proof" for many "experts" who believe that the juvenile justice system should be abolished. These skeptics reason that one criminal court could still have some latitude when sentencing younger offenders, but that kids are now committing adult crimes, so it is time to treat them as adults. Fortunately, this is... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

2261 words - 9 pages Introduction Does exposure to deviant peers affect whether individuals participate in general delinquency? Peers have an influence on the developing individual where the individual shares definitions favorable to them (Snyder, Dishion, Patterson, 1982). Findings in literature suggest that delinquent youths are involved in a relationship between peers delinquent behavior and a respondent’s own delinquency (Warr, 1996). Shaw and McKay, in 1931, discovered that more than 80% of individuals had deviant peers, and they have a strong tendency to commit delinquent acts in the company of others. Studies found that relationships of peer delinquency from self‐report delinquency surpasses that of any... VIEW DOCUMENT

Approaches to Solving Juvenile Delinquency

1110 words - 4 pages Throughout generations the rate of delinquency has rocketed. The government has reformed different laws and amendments to protect the community. Delinquency has been taken advantage and will remain to, if the proper action isn't taken place. If the government has such an authoritative power, why are the numbers still increasing? The first priority of the government shouldn’t be the safety of community, but the imprisonment or the captivity of the individuals performing the careless acts. From the day the juvenile has been given a sentence till the day the sentence has expired this individual should be given extra attention to. This individual has the ability to commit crimes that doesn’t... VIEW DOCUMENT

Female Juvenile Delinquency in Canada

695 words - 3 pages Female Juvenile Delinquency in Canada  The punishment for girls was much more harsh in the early days of Canada’s history when crime was seen as an intolerable part of town life.  Young girls of age thirteen and fourteen were often hanged for theft in the mid to late 17th century Quebec or put in detention centres (usually a hospital) for as much as six years at a time (Carrigan 8).  Age was sometimes taken into consideration for serious crimes and so whipping and branding was used instead of execution.  The practise in Halifax in 1815 was to whip a girl thirty-nine times at the community whipping post (Carrigan 37).  The most common problem among girls during this time and in the... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency in the Classroom

1634 words - 7 pages In depicting juvenile delinquency in the classroom, a few film directors portrayed novice teachers' desire to reach what the school system customarily labeled as "problem students." These films illustrate that these students are often categorized quickly and unfairly, and hopeful intervention by a few caring and zealous teachers is enough to change their lives and attitudes for the better. In the black and white 1955 film "Blackboard Jungle," Mr. Dadier (played by Glenn Ford) was an idealistic teacher on his first job in a tough urban mostly white male high school. The characters were dressed in clothing of the time (jeans rolled up at the cuffs, tee shirts, bow ties, baseball caps)... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Case Studies in Justice System

1485 words - 6 pages The continued rise in juvenile crimes is becoming a threat to society as years go by. Crimes committed by children below age 15, have been reported as early as the 19th century when they faced about the same punishment as adult criminals: public shaming, incarceration, even execution by hanging. At least 10 juveniles who were 14 at the time of their offense were executed during the 1800抯 including two 10 years old, according to the Washington-based Coalition for Juvenile Justice (Kresnak, 2003, p2).揑t is apparent in this generation that the rate of teenage and younger children becoming juveniles delinquent is growing each year at a rapid paste. In 1985, there were... VIEW DOCUMENT

Literature Review: Poverty and Juvenile Delinquency

1807 words - 7 pages TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................... 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................................. 3 Family Factors ............................................................................................................................ 3 Parenting .................................................................................................................................. 3 Financial... VIEW DOCUMENT

Developmental Crime Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency

2391 words - 10 pages Background One of the best strategies for combating juvenile delinquency is adopting developmental crime prevention program. Developmental crime prevention programs aim to lower an individual’s potential of becoming criminal. The theory that guides these types of programs is that criminal and deviant activity is the result of early life experiences and learning. These programs put an emphasis on what causes individuals to commit deviant acts in order to identify ways that this activity can be stopped (Lab, 2014). A key piece to developmental crime prevention programs is identifying risk and protective factors for offending. A risk factor is any variable increases the probability of... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Boot Camps Do Not Reduce Juvenile Delinquency

3174 words - 13 pages Introduction Juvenile delinquency is a relatively new phenomenon. For this reason, society’s reactions and solutions to the problem of delinquency are also modern developments. The United States developed the first youth court in 1899 and is now home to many new and formerly untested methods of juvenile rehabilitation and correction. One of many unique programs within the Juvenile Justice system, boot camps are institutions designed to keep delinquent juveniles out of traditional incarceration facilities and still provide a structured method of punishment and rehabilitation. Boot camps developed in the early 1990s and quickly proliferated throughout the nation. Specifically, they are... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency - 1330 words

1330 words - 5 pages Over the years, countless efforts have been made to find a comprehensive explanation for delinquency. The results of these efforts have offered possible reasons as being both biological and social. It is still debatable as to what forces have the greatest influence on youth crime, but it is undoubted that several factors clearly make an impact. The direct relationships a child has with concrete social elements, like his family and friends, are likely to give some intimation of his involvement in crime. However, it must be noted that there are more abstract contexts for socialization that also exist as potential explanations for a child’s behavior. The most prominent of these less specific... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Marxist Crime Perspective on Juvenile Delinquency of African Americans

3121 words - 12 pages Introduction Countless studies from respected sociologists, criminologists, and psychologists have suggested several theories as to why juvenile delinquency exists. The theory this paper uses to explain juvenile delinquency is the Marxist perspective of the Conflict Theory. What this paper seeks to achieve is to show how this theory is conceptualized, how it causes juvenile delinquency particularly for African Americans, statistics on African American juveniles, and why it could lead to a life of crime as juveniles transition into adulthood. In addition to this, the government will be examined on how it uses the legal system, law enforcement, and certain officials to control most of the... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile delinquency with reference to school violence in secondary schools.

4721 words - 19 pages Juvenile Delinquency in the form of School Violence at Secondary Schools in Trinidad and TobagoViolence in Trinidad and Tobago has been escalating as is reflected in the high crime rates in society. Youth violence especially in schools has become a common feature of life in Trinidad and Tobago. Everyday newspaper headlines in Trinidad and Tobago expose the worrying dimension of school violence for all stakeholders in the... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Curfew: Issues on Juvenile Delinquency and Constitutional Rights

2513 words - 10 pages The Curfew � PAGE �1� Running Head: THE CURFEWThe Curfew: Issues on Juvenile Delinquency and Constitutional RightsThe Curfew: Issues on Juvenile Delinquency and Constitutional RightsIntroductionJuvenile crime is becoming a threat to society as years go by. Crimes committed by children below 15 have been reported as early as the 19th century, when they faced about the same punishments as adult criminals: public shaming, incarceration, even execution by hanging. At least 10 juveniles who were under 14 at the time of their... VIEW DOCUMENT

Impact of Television in Relation To Juvenile Delinquency

2433 words - 10 pages IMPACT OF TELEVISION VIOLENCEIN RELATION TO JUVENILE DELINQUENCYTABLE OF CONTENTSIntroductionEffects Of Television - The BeginningCorrelational ExperimentsField ExperimentsCause And Effects On Types Of ChildrenConclusionReferences 113568When children are taught how to tie their shoes, it is because of how their parents showed them. When children are taught how to do math problems it is because how their teachers show them. With all of the role models how does television effect our children?Many adults feel that because they watched television when they were... VIEW DOCUMENT

Childhood Delinquence. Definition, the extent, causes, and what has been done to deal with the problem

936 words - 4 pages Remember doing something mischievous or wrong when you were a kid and getting the label'delinquent' slapped on you ? Did you ever wonder what it meant ? That is what my topicfor today is . . . juvenile delinquency. In this report I will: define juveniledelinquency, give the extent of juvenile delinquency, give some suggestions on what causesjuvenile delinquency, and what is being done in various communities to deal with thisgrowing problem. The legal term juvenile delinquent was established so that younglawbreakers could avoid the disgrace of being classified in legal records as criminals.Juvenile delinquency laws were designed to provide... VIEW DOCUMENT

The United States Juvenile Justice System.

868 words - 3 pages Originally, the juvenile court was thought of as a social service organization that dealt with protecting and solving the problems of children in trouble. The primary role of the juvenile court was not to establish guilt but rather to rehabilitate youthful offenders by eliminating the problem causing the juvenile to engage in delinquent behavior. Emphasis was placed on rehabilitation, attention and education and these beliefs became the basis of what is known as the juvenile justice system. The juvenile justice system wants to keep citizens safe and rehabilitate delinquent youth and increase the competency of the juvenile offender and mold them into law abiding, tax paying citizens.... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice in USA

869 words - 3 pages Juvenile JusticeThe Juvenile Justice System as it typically functions in America's thousands of jurisdictions is the subject that will be covered. The Juvenile Justice System is defined as that 'sociolegal process having responsibility and authority for public reaction to current juvenile delinquency and deterrence of future juvenile delinquency, including within that process the public and private agents, agencies, laws, rules, and policies having to do with juvenile delinquency'(Weiner, 1987, p.12). This paper will deal with the history of the... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice Policy Reform

991 words - 4 pages Juvenile Justice Policy ReformIt is a disturbing fact that the number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts increased 43% between 1985 and 2000 (Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention, 2000). According to Snyder (2000), "Delinquency offences are acts committed by juveniles that would be crimes if committed by adults." (OJJDP, 2000). Here is the question to discuss. What causes these youth to behave the way to get involved in the illegal acts, and who and how to deal with this problem? Indeed, this paper will discuss about the approaches and legal mechanisms that address the issue of juvenile delinquency.Apparently, juvenile justice policy has been... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Crime Statistics

715 words - 3 pages Juvenile Crime Statistics 2Juvenile Crime StatisticsTania IversenCJA/374 - Juvenile Justice Systems and ProcessesApril 10, 2014Jess GutierrezJuvenile Crime StatisticsBy definition, a juvenile is considered a person under the age of 18 years old. A child or youth who commits a crime or is otherwise beyond the control of his or her parents is considered a juvenile delinquent. Juvenile crime has been an issue throughout the United States since the early 1800s, with the first court system being established in 1899.... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice System

1708 words - 7 pages The juvenile justice system is a foundation in society that is granted certain powers and responsibilities. It faces several different tasks, among the most important is maintaining order and preserving constitutional rights. When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. This paper examines the Juvenile Justice System’s court process in the State of New Jersey and the State of California. The term juvenile delinquent was established so that young lawbreakers could avoid being classified in legal records as criminals.... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Crime

543 words - 2 pages its a good paper its an A paperOne of the biggest problems which the United States is faced with is juvenile crime. The reason experts feel juvenile's commit crimes is because of risk factors when they were younger but experts still have not found the main reason why juvenile's commit crimes. Some risk factors associated with juvenile crime are poverty, repeated exposure to violence, drugs, easy access to firearms, unstable family life and family violence, delinquent peer groups, and media violence. Especially the demise of family life, the effect of the media on the juveniles today, and the increase of... VIEW DOCUMENT

Social Outcasts and Juvenile Deliquency

942 words - 4 pages Man was created to be a social being. Individuals always strive to belong to a group for their survival. Man has been known to have a strong liking of belonging to a group and greatly fears to be rejected or isolated (Wever, 2006). Society in some instances is known to reject or even isolate some individuals based on various reasons. Such individuals become unpopular, disliked, and sometimes are hated. As a result the social outcasts as they are simply referred to may develop a low self esteem and have a low social status. Social outcast are also hated, discriminated and persecuted by the society and as a result they may result into being depressed and lonely. Juvenile Delinquency refers... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Offenders: Race and Ethnicity

2146 words - 9 pages A good deal of research has noted major disparities in the extent of involvement of minority youth, particularly black youth compared with white youth, in the juvenile justice system. The existence of disproportionate racial representation in the juvenile justice system raises questions about the fundamental fairness and equality of treatment of these youth by the police, courts, and other personnel connected with the juvenile justice system. Furthermore, what happens to youth in their dealings with the juvenile justice system may have substantial consequences for subsequent developments on this issue in the future. This paper is designed to bring together divergent streams of research... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Relationship Between Social Class and Delinquency

1451 words - 6 pages Most people have preconceived notions regarding the relationship between social class and delinquency. A common assumption is that lower-class juveniles are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior than their higher-class counterparts. Criminologists have performed a large number of studies examining the socio-demographic characteristics of delinquents, which often yielded contradictory results. When analyzing the extent and trend of juvenile delinquency in the United States conclusions can be drawn from estimates derived from arrest records, self-reports, and victimization data. Arrest estimates, self-reported information, and victimization data provide different estimates of the extent... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenille Delinquency in America

1641 words - 7 pages JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN AMERICAThere is no doubt that various experts can give us many theories as to the causes of juvenile delinquency, including one's economic background, substance abuse, delinquent peer groups, repeated exposure to violence, and increased availability of firearms, however, I feel that the number one cause of juvenile delinquency is the breakdown of families, including lack of parental control over children. It is ironic in America, today, one must have a driver's license to operate a vehicle, a permit to own a gun and even a license to own a dog, but one does not have... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Crime Statistics

897 words - 4 pages One of the biggest problems that the United States is faced with today is juvenile crime. Some risk factors associated with juvenile crime are poverty, repeated exposure to violence, drugs, easy access to firearms, unstable family life and family violence, delinquent peer groups, and media violence. Particularly the downfall of family life, the effect of the media on juveniles , and the increase of firearms available today have played a big role in the increase of juvenile crimes. Are juveniles as under control today as they were in the past? Crime plays a major role in today's society. The government follows a policy and has always followed the policy that no crime goes unpunished. So... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Offenders: Race & Ethnicity

2044 words - 8 pages Past research has shown major disparities in the juvenile justice system, regarding the involvement with black youth compared to white youth. Questions have been raised about the fundamental fairness and equality of treatment of these youth by the police, courts, and other personnel connected with the juvenile justice system, due to disproportionate racial representation.There can be confusion in the meanings of terms used describe the racial disparity in the juvenile justice system. This confusion has attributed some racial differences in juvenile justice outcomes to prejudice and bigotry. Therefore, it is important to define the terms being used in this report. Disparity and... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Crime

2537 words - 10 pages Juvenile Crime There has always been alarm and despair over escalating juvenile crime. In the 1950s there were reports about the mushrooming problems with youthful gangs in the big cities. In the 1960s we began to hear about a surge of juvenile crime in areas that had been regarded as virtually crime free. In the suburbs as well as the inner cities, youngsters were dropping out of school, using drugs and committing crimes. In the 1970s and 1980s, juvenile court dockets became increasingly jammed with criminal cases. According to the Department of Justice, the percentage increases in arrests from 1985 to 1994 have been greater for juveniles than for adults. During 1994 alone, 2.7... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice- Helpful or harmful?

1586 words - 6 pages Throughout the years, the Juvenile detention has suffered from an identity crisis so severe that it seems to be relinquishing its ability to help youth. The United States still puts more children and teenagers in juvenile detention than any other developed nations in the world. As it turns out, it seems to be hurting our youth more than helping them become better for society. The juvenile detention is a really unfavorable strategy for many youths under the age of 19. Not only does throwing a kid in detention often reduce the chance that he or she will graduate high school, but it also raises the chance that the youth will commit more crimes later on in life. After all, the youths who commit... VIEW DOCUMENT

JUVENILE CRIME STATISTICS PAPER

821 words - 3 pages The Federal Bureau of Investigation tracks four offenses murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault in its Violent Crime Index. The juvenile arrest rate for each of these offenses has been declining steadily since the mid-1990s. The murder rate fell 70% from its 1993 peak through 2001 (Snyder, 2003).Statistics: Research has shown that crimes committed by juveniles are more likely to be cleared by law enforcement than crimes committed by adults. The clearance data in the Crime in the United States series show that the proportion of violent crimes attributed to juveniles by law enforcement has declined in recent years. The proportion of violent crimes cleared by juvenile... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Crime

931 words - 4 pages Juvenile Crime Introduction      Every year, millions of juveniles are involved in criminal activities. According to statistics, as of 1999, the arrest rate for juvenile crime has dropped from its peak in the mid-1990’s. Statistics about juvenile crime have shown a steady increase of juvenile arrests from 1987 to 1994. Although overall crime rates have decreased since 1994, they are still above what they were in 1980. The following paragraphs and charts show the crime rates of specific crimes committed by juveniles. Statistics on Juvenile Crime Rates In the year of 1999, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.5 million convictions of persons under the age of... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile justice

1927 words - 8 pages A good deal of research has noted major disparities in the extent of involvement of minority youth, particularly black youth compared with white youth, in the juvenile justice system. The existence of disproportionate racial representation in the juvenile justice system raises questions about the fundamental fairness and equality of treatment of these youth by the police, courts, and other personnel connected with the juvenile justice system. Furthermore, what happens to youth in their dealings with the juvenile justice system may have substantial consequences for subsequent developments on this issue in the future. This report is designed to bring together divergent streams of research... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile and Adult Courts - A Comparative Analysis

1522 words - 6 pages AbstractCrime has been around since the beginning of time. It started with Adam and Eve who ate the apple after God told them they were to stay away from the tree. Nothing has changed since then except that crimes have become more severe and sadly, children have started doing some of that crime. Like adults, when juveniles commit a crime and are caught, there must be punishment for it. Depending on the severity of the crime that juvenile may be brought to a juvenile court and if the crime is more severe, an adult court may be more appropriate. The author will discuss the differences between adult and juvenile courts. Finally, it will discuss what can happen if juvenile courts are... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Canadian Juvenile Justice System

1131 words - 5 pages Youth and juvenile crime is a common and serious issue in current society, and people, especially parents and educators, are pretty worried about the trend of this problem. According to Bala and Roberts, around 17% of criminals were youths, compared to 8% of Canadian population ranging between 12 to 18 years of age between 2003 and 2004 (2006, p37). As a big federal country, Canada has taken a series of actions since 1908. So far, there are three justice acts in the history of Canadian juvenile justice system, the 1908 Juvenile Delinquents Act, the 1982 Young Offenders Act, and the 2003 Youth Criminal Justice Act. In Canada, the judicial system and the principle of these laws have been... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Courts

2445 words - 10 pages There is ongoing debate as to what should be done with juvenile courts. Should juvenile courts be abolished or just reformed? There are a number of reasons offered for each viewpoint, and the ultimate goal is trying to figure out which option would be most beneficial for juveniles. Juvenile delinquency is a continuous problem in the United States. It is also considered an issue that all of society needs to take part in trying to solve or at least diminish. Despite the number of social controls that can aid in dealing with delinquency much of the burden is placed on the juvenile justice system. It is well understood that the juvenile courts have a lot of imperfections. These... VIEW DOCUMENT

"Juveniles' delinquency in the United Arab Emirates" OMAR ALALI 2005

5355 words - 21 pages 1. Introduction:During the last few years, the problem of juveniles' delinquency has emerged as a significant subject in the United Arab Emirates (see Appendix 1). This in fact not only because it is a new menace swept the country, but also because of the dramatic increase in the number of juvenile offenders in the U.A.E. According to the ministry of interior's statistics (2004), the rates of juveniles' delinquents have increased by 1376% between 1977 and 2003.Many societies worldwide are becoming more and more concerned about the problem of juveniles' delinquency. This in fact not... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Justice

676 words - 3 pages The juvenile courts were put into place on the principle that courts should give children special treatment due to their innocence and dependency (Caldwell, 1961). This stemmed from rigid common law in England and its failure to deliver equitable sentencing to deserving children. Through the juvenile courts the king could act like a father to his countrymen by exercising guardianship over minors and thus given special protection, called parens patriae. Children also exhibit innocence and therefore were thought to be incapable of having criminal intent through age seven and incapable of committing a crime through age fourteen. Sociologists soon began to see that criminal behavior... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Homicide Can Be Prevented

2365 words - 9 pages Introduction For every 12 homicides committed in the United States 1 of them involves a juvenile offender (Howard N. Snyder, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, 2006). Although most American don’t realize it, juvenile homicide is a problem in the United States that needs to be fixed. Even though statistics show that the homicide rate done by juveniles is at its lowest rate since the early 1980’s it is still a problem. Juvenile homicide has lowered in the recent years, but the fact that it still happens is chilling to most Americans. Most Americans believe that juveniles who show early signs of deviant acts are not a big deal, however if we try and help those juveniles, we can possibly stop... VIEW DOCUMENT

Juvenile Delinquency Essay Examples

Get inspired and start your paper now!

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *