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Ways Of Seeing Bibliography Definition

Visual Culture Theory Bibliography and Sources: In Progress in Realtime

Douglas Kellner, Brief Definition and History of Cultural Studies

Illuminations: Critical Theory Site


Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.

______. Image Music Text. London: Fontana, 1977.

______. A Barthes Reader. Ed. Susan Sontag. New York: Hill and Wang, 1980.

Bérubé, Michael. The Aesthetics of Cultuiral Studies. Blackwell: Malden, MA and Oxford, UK, 2005.

Bourdieu, Pierre 1979. La distinction: Critique sociale du jugement. Les éditions de Minuit, Paris. English translation: Distinction : A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.), 1984.]

Ferry L 1990 Homo Aestheticus: The Invention of Taste in the Democratic Age. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Pantheon,and London: Tavistock, 1970.

-----. The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. A. M. Sheridan Smith, translator. New York: Pantheon, 1972.

-----. "What is an Author?" Translated by Donald F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon. In Michel Foucault: Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Donald F. Bouchard, Ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977. pp. 113-138.

-----. This is Not a Pipe. Translated and edited by James Harkness. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

-----. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Pantheon, 1978.

-----. The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon, 1978.

-----. The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Vol. 2. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Random House, 1985.

Gans, Herbert J 1974. Popular Culture and High Culture: An Analysis and Evaluation of Taste. Basic Books, New York.

Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen, 1979.

Horkheimer, Max 1986 "Art and Mass Culture." Critical Theory: Selected Essays. Continuum, New York.

Veblen T 1939 [1899] The Theory of the Leisure Class. The Modern Library, New York.

M. Bal, "Seeing Signs: The Use of Semiotics for the Understanding of Visual Art", in The Objects of Art History; Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspective, ed.M.Cheetham, M.A.Holly, and K.Moxey, 1998, 74-93.

M. Bal and N. Bryson, "Semiotics and Art History", Art Bulletin, 73, 1991, pp.174-208.

N. Bryson, M.A.Holly, K.Moxey (eds.) Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation, Cambridge, 1991 (especially essays by Bryson and Summers)

W.J.T.Mitchell, Iconology; Text, Image, Ideology, Chicago, 1986

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Evans, Jessica and Stuart Hall, eds. Visual Culture: The Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

Stafford, Barbara Maria. Good Looking: Essays on the Virtue of Images. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1996.

Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Tufte, Edward R. The visual display of quantitative information. Edward R. Tufte Cheshire, Conn. : Graphics Press, 1983.

-----. Visual explanations : images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Edward R. Tufte Cheshire, Conn. : Graphics Press, 1997.

-----. Envisioning information / Edward R. Tufte Cheshire, Conn. : Graphics Press, 1990.

Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. London: Vintage, 1993 [1980].

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.

Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill, 1993.

Elsässer, Thomas and Warren Buckland. Studying Contemporary American Film: A Guide to Movie Analysis. London: Arnold, 2002.

Evans, Jessica and Stuart Hall (eds.). Visual Culture: The Reader. London, Thousand Oaks, New Dehli: Sage in association with the Open University, 1999.

Gledhill, Christine and Linda Williams (eds.). Reinventing Films Studies. London: Arnold, 2000.

Hayword, Susan. Key Concepts in Cinema Studies. Routledge: London, New York, 1996.

Mast, Gerald, Cohen Marshall and Leo Braudy (eds.). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. Fourth edition. New York, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas (ed.). The Visual Culture Reader. London, New York: Routledge, 1998.

______. An Introduction to Visual Culture. London, New York: Routledge, 1999.

Mulhall, Stephen. On Film. London, New York: Routledge, 2002.

Nichols, Bill (ed.). Movies and Methods. Volume II. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1985.

Visual Rhetoric Sources

Arnheim, Rudolf. Genesis of a Painting: Picasso's Guernica. 1994

Arnheim, Rudolf. New Essays on the Psychology of Art 1986.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Revealing Vision. Kent Kleinman (Editor), Leslie Van Duzer (Editor) 1997)

Arnheim, Rudolf. The Power of the Center : A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts: The New Version 1988.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Visual Thinking 1989.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception : A Psychology of the Creative Eye. 1983

Arnheim, Rudolf. Entropy and Art : An Essay on Disorder and Order 1983.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Film As Art 1989

Bang, Molly. Picture This: How Pictures Work. New York: SeaStar Books, 2000.

Berger, Arthur Asa. Seeing is Believing: An Introduction to Visual Communication. 2nd Ed. Mayfield, 1998.Berger, John, and Jean Mohr. Another Way of Telling. Vintage, 1995.

Bernstein, J.M. "Aporia of the Sensible: Art, Objecthood and Anthropomorphism." Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Vision. Ed. Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell. New York: Routledge, 1998. 218-237.

Betts, Katherine.  "Copy Rites."  Vogue (September 1994):  148, 154.

Bordo, Susan. Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J. Berkeley: U California P, 1998.

Davey, Nicholas. "The Hermeneutics of Seeing." Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Vision. Ed. Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell. New York: Routledge, 1998. 3-29.

Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy. Cambridge: MIT, 1973.

Gombrich, E.H. Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. Princeton UP, 1969.

Heywood, Ian, and Barry Sandywell, eds. Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Vision. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Heywood, Ian, and Barry Sandywell, eds. "Explorations in the Hermeneutics of Vision." Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Vision. Ed. Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell. New York: Routledge, 1998. ix-xviii.

Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, eds.  Defining Visual Rhetorics.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003. 

Hilligoss, Susan. Visual Communication: A Writer's Guide. New York: Longman, 2000.

Hocks, Mary E., and Michelle R. Kendrick, eds.  Eloquent Images:  Word and Image in the Age of New Media.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 2003. 

Jones, Caroline A. "The Modernist Paradigm: The Artworld and Thomas Kuhn." Critical Inquiry 26.3 (Spring 2000): 488-528.

Journal of Visual Literacy and the International Visual Literacy Association (www.emporia.edu/S/www/slim/resource/IVLA/IVLA.htm )

Kress, Gunther, and Theo Van Leeuwen. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge, 1996.

Marling, Karal Ann. As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1994. 

Messaris, Paul. Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.

Michel, Anthony J. "Visual Rhetorics and Classroom Practices: Negotiating 'Contact Zones' in Julie Dash's Daughters of the Dust." Alternative Rhetorics: Challenges to the Rhetorical Tradition. Ed. Laura Gray-Rosendale and Sibylle Gruber. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2001. 167-184.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas, ed. The Visual Culture Reader. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York: Routledge. Forthcoming.

Mitchell, W.J.T. Iconology:  Image, Text, Ideology.  U Chicago P, 1986. 

Mitchell, W.J.T. "The Panic of the Visual: A Conversation with Edward W. Said." Boundary 2 25.2 (Summer 1998).

Mitchell, W.J.T. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation. U Chicago P, 1994.

Mitchell, W.J.T.  The Reconfigured Eye:  Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era.  Cambridge, MA:  MIT P, 1994. 

Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. U Chicago P, 1996.

Morris, Robert. "Size Matters." Critical Inquiry 26.3 (Spring 2000): 474-487.

Nelson, Robert S. "The Slide Lecture, or The Work of Art History in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Critical Inquiry 26.3 (Spring 2000): 414-434.

Parker, Ian. "Absolute Powerpoint." The New Yorker (28 May 2001): 76-87.

Schor, Naomi. "Blindness as Metaphor." Differences 11.2 (Summer 1999).  

Scott, Linda M., and Rajeev Batra, eds.  Persuasive Imagery:  A Consumer Response Perspective.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003. 

Smith, John A. "The Denigration of Vision and the Renewal of Painting." Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Vision. Ed. Ian Heywood and Barry Sandywell. New York: Routledge, 1998. 162-182.

Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright.  Practices of Looking:  An Introduction to Visual Culture.  New York:  Oxford UP, 2001. 

Taylor, Mark C. & Esa Saarinen. Imagologies : Media Philosophy. London ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1994.

Tufte, Edward R. Envisioning Information. Cheshire: Graphics, 1990.

Tufte, Edward R. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantitites, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics P, 1997.

Based on the BBC television series, John Berger's Ways of Seeing is a unique look at the way we view art, published as part of the Penguin on Design series in Penguin Modern Classics.

'Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak.'

'But there is also another sense in which seeing comes before words. It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but word can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it. The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled.'

John Berger's Ways of Seeing is one of the most stimulating and influential books on art in any language. First published in 1972, it was based on the BBC television series about which the Sunday Times critic commented: 'This is an eye-opener in more ways than one: by concentrating on how we look at paintings . . . he will almost certainly change the way you look at pictures.' By now he has.

John Berger (b. 1926) is an art critic, painter and novelist.born in Hackney, London.
His novel G. (1972) won both the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Booker Prize.

If you enjoyed Ways of Seeing, you might like Susan Sontag's On Photography, also available in Penguin Modern Classics.

'Berger has the ability to cut right through the mystification of professional art critics ... he is a liberator of images: and once we have allowed the paintings to work on us directly, we are in a much better position to make a meaningful evaluation'
Peter Fuller, Arts Review

'The influence of the series and the book ... was enormous ... It opened up for general attention areas of cultural study that are now commonplace'
Geoff Dyer in Ways of Telling

'One of the most influential intellectuals of our time'

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